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Anil Kumar - Department of Entomology, Nematology and Chemistry Units Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) - Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.  

Chunoti Changwal - Division of Plant Physiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.  

Alkesh Hada - Department of Biotechnology, National College (Autonomous), Tirruchirappalli, India.  

Prashant Kumar Singh - Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) – The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel; Department of Biotechnology, Pachhunga University College, Mizoram Central University, Aizawl, India.

Plants are constantly exposed to a broad range of potential pathogens and pests and therefore have developed a highly sophisticated immune system to perceive and prevent such threats. Plants use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) as well as nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat to monitor nonself and damaged-self and altered-self patterns as signs of potential danger. PRRs of plants stimulate local and systemic immunity after pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs) have been recognized. Then, a cascade of response begins that, through the identification of PAMPs, results in plant immunity known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens bypass PTI by expressing a suite of effector protein that destroys or interferes with host defense system. Recent developments have revealed novel PRRs, their respective ligands, and pathways affecting PRR activity and signaling. To quickly identify microbial patterns and their cognate PRRs, innovative approaches have emerged. Here, in this chapter, we illustrate known PAMPs and effectors of various pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, nematode, and viruses recognized by plant receptors reported till date. We have also discussed different approaches for identifying PAMPs, effectors, and PRRs. Eventually, we highlight the evolving biotechnological potential of the use of PRRs to enhance the wide spectrum and possibly long-lasting resistance of disease in plants.

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Molecular Insight of Plant–Pathogen Interaction

Anil Kumar - Department of Entomology, Nematology and Chemistry Units Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) - Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.  

Chunoti Changwal - Division of Plant Physiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.  

Alkesh Hada - Department of Biotechnology, National College (Autonomous), Tirruchirappalli, India.  

Prashant Kumar Singh - Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) – The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel; Department of Biotechnology, Pachhunga University College, Mizoram Central University, Aizawl, India.

Molecular Insight of Plant–Pathogen Interaction

Plants are constantly exposed to a broad range of potential pathogens and pests and therefore have developed a highly sophisticated immune system to perceive and prevent such threats. Plants use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) as well as nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat to monitor nonself and damaged-self and altered-self patterns as signs of potential danger. PRRs of plants stimulate local and systemic immunity after pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs) have been recognized. Then, a cascade of response begins that, through the identification of PAMPs, results in plant immunity known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens bypass PTI by expressing a suite of effector protein that destroys or interferes with host defense system. Recent developments have revealed novel PRRs, their respective ligands, and pathways affecting PRR activity and signaling. To quickly identify microbial patterns and their cognate PRRs, innovative approaches have emerged. Here, in this chapter, we illustrate known PAMPs and effectors of various pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, nematode, and viruses recognized by plant receptors reported till date. We have also discussed different approaches for identifying PAMPs, effectors, and PRRs. Eventually, we highlight the evolving biotechnological potential of the use of PRRs to enhance the wide spectrum and possibly long-lasting resistance of disease in plants.

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