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Nedal Massalha - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel; Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, Faculty of Management, University of Haifa, 199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Mount Carmel, Haifa, 3498838, Israel. 
Fares Halahlih - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel 
Thanh H.Nguyen - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Safe Global Water Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Isam Sabbah - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel; Prof. Ephraim Katzir Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Braude College, Karmiel, Israel

The use of water for drinking and agriculture requires knowledge of its toxicity. In this study, we compared the use of genetically modified bioluminescent (GMB) bacteria whose luminescence increases in the presence of toxicants and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for the characterization of the toxicity of water samples collected from a lake and streams, hydroponic and aquaponic farms, and a wastewater treatment plant. GMB bacteria were used to probe genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species-induced effects in the whole water samples. Unlike GMB bacteria, the use of CHO cells requires XAD resin-based pre-concentration of toxic material present in water samples for the subsequent cytotoxicity assay. In addition to the examination of the toxicity of the water from the different sources, the GMB bacteria were also used to test the XAD extracts diluted to the concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition of the CHO cells. The two biomonitoring tools provided different results when they were used to test the above-mentioned diluted XAD extracts. A pre-concentration procedure based on adsorption by XAD resins with subsequent elution was not sufficient to represent the material responsible for the toxicity of the whole water samples toward the GMB bacteria. Therefore, the use of XAD resin extracts may lead to major underestimates of the toxicity of water samples. Although the toxicity findings obtained using the GMB bacteria and CHO cells may not correlate with each another, the GMB bacteria assay did provide a mechanism-specific biomonitoring tool to probe the toxicity of water samples without a need for the pre-concentration step.

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Water toxicity evaluations: Comparing genetically modified bioluminescent bacteria and CHO cells as biomonitoring tools
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Nedal Massalha - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel; Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, Faculty of Management, University of Haifa, 199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Mount Carmel, Haifa, 3498838, Israel. 
Fares Halahlih - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel 
Thanh H.Nguyen - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Safe Global Water Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Isam Sabbah - The Institute of Applied Research, The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr, Israel; Prof. Ephraim Katzir Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Braude College, Karmiel, Israel

Water toxicity evaluations: Comparing genetically modified bioluminescent bacteria and CHO cells as biomonitoring tools

The use of water for drinking and agriculture requires knowledge of its toxicity. In this study, we compared the use of genetically modified bioluminescent (GMB) bacteria whose luminescence increases in the presence of toxicants and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for the characterization of the toxicity of water samples collected from a lake and streams, hydroponic and aquaponic farms, and a wastewater treatment plant. GMB bacteria were used to probe genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species-induced effects in the whole water samples. Unlike GMB bacteria, the use of CHO cells requires XAD resin-based pre-concentration of toxic material present in water samples for the subsequent cytotoxicity assay. In addition to the examination of the toxicity of the water from the different sources, the GMB bacteria were also used to test the XAD extracts diluted to the concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition of the CHO cells. The two biomonitoring tools provided different results when they were used to test the above-mentioned diluted XAD extracts. A pre-concentration procedure based on adsorption by XAD resins with subsequent elution was not sufficient to represent the material responsible for the toxicity of the whole water samples toward the GMB bacteria. Therefore, the use of XAD resin extracts may lead to major underestimates of the toxicity of water samples. Although the toxicity findings obtained using the GMB bacteria and CHO cells may not correlate with each another, the GMB bacteria assay did provide a mechanism-specific biomonitoring tool to probe the toxicity of water samples without a need for the pre-concentration step.

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