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Chen Klap  - Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 761001, Israel.

Lior Hadad  - Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 761001, Israel.

The tobamovirus tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), a major threat to tomato production worldwide, has recently been documented in mixed infections with the potexvirus pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) CH2 strain in traded tomatoes in Israel. A study of greenhouse tomato plants in Israel revealed severe new viral disease symptoms including open unripe fruits and yellow patched leaves. PepMV was only detected in mixed infections with ToBRFV in all 104 tested sites, using serological and molecular analyses. Six PepMV isolates were identified, all had predicted amino acids characteristic of CH2 mild strains excluding an isoleucine at amino acid position 995 of the replicase. High-throughput sequencing of viral RNA extracted from four selected symptomatic plants showed solely the ToBRFV and PepMV, with total aligned read ratios of 40.61% and 11.73%, respectively, indicating prevalence of the viruses. Analyses of interactions between the co-infecting viruses by sequential and mixed viral inoculations of tomato plants, at various temperatures, showed a prominent increase in PepMV titers in ToBRFV pre-inoculated plants and in mixed-infected plants at 18-25 °C, compared to PepMV-single inoculations, as analyzed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR tests. These results suggest that Israeli mild PepMV isolate infections, preceded by ToBRFV, could induce symptoms characteristic of PepMV aggressive strains.

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Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus Contributes to Enhanced Pepino Mosaic Virus Titers in Tomato Plants
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Chen Klap  - Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 761001, Israel.

Lior Hadad  - Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 761001, Israel.

Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus Contributes to Enhanced Pepino Mosaic Virus Titers in Tomato Plants

The tobamovirus tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), a major threat to tomato production worldwide, has recently been documented in mixed infections with the potexvirus pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) CH2 strain in traded tomatoes in Israel. A study of greenhouse tomato plants in Israel revealed severe new viral disease symptoms including open unripe fruits and yellow patched leaves. PepMV was only detected in mixed infections with ToBRFV in all 104 tested sites, using serological and molecular analyses. Six PepMV isolates were identified, all had predicted amino acids characteristic of CH2 mild strains excluding an isoleucine at amino acid position 995 of the replicase. High-throughput sequencing of viral RNA extracted from four selected symptomatic plants showed solely the ToBRFV and PepMV, with total aligned read ratios of 40.61% and 11.73%, respectively, indicating prevalence of the viruses. Analyses of interactions between the co-infecting viruses by sequential and mixed viral inoculations of tomato plants, at various temperatures, showed a prominent increase in PepMV titers in ToBRFV pre-inoculated plants and in mixed-infected plants at 18-25 °C, compared to PepMV-single inoculations, as analyzed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR tests. These results suggest that Israeli mild PepMV isolate infections, preceded by ToBRFV, could induce symptoms characteristic of PepMV aggressive strains.

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