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endosulfan

Somenath Das - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Anand Kumar Chaudhari - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study
, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Ajay Kumar - 2Agriculture Research Organizations (ARO), Volcani Center, Israel
Vipin Kumar Singh - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Indiscriminate application of insecticide endosulfan in the agricultural field has polluted the soil, air, and water posing a severe challenging threat to the natural ecosystem. Once introduced into the natural environment they are transformed into different forms depending on the prevailing environmental conditions and microbial community involved. The endosulfan sulfate produced by microbiological activity is considered as one of the stable form responsible for food chain contamination. The endosulfan has a hazardous impact on human and other organisms including fishes, beneficial insects and soil microorganisms due to its persistent, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and genotoxic nature. Their presence in food products beyond the prescribed safety limits has emerged as a challenging issue to human health. The effective detection of endosulfan content using high throughput instrument is very much important for the management of contaminated sites. The presence of endosulfan in groundwater resulting from the surface runoff near the abandoned production site and huge illegal agricultural application in several parts of the world even after the ban indicates the need of strict regulations in the present scenario. Currently, numerous physical and chemical methods have been proposed to eliminate the risk of endosulfan contamination but due to their limitations such as high input of energy, application of toxic chemicals and generation of secondary products of noxious nature has limited the application. On the other hand, biological methods relying on native microorganism being eco-friendly, cost-effective and free from generation of secondary sludge are much preferred. Since the biological processes are largely governed by an environmental factor, optimization of important parameters and selection of suitable microorganism displaying tolerance to a wide range of endosulfan concentration is inevitable. Further, the identification of genes directly involved in degradation and their transfer into suitable microbe may be considered as an effective strategy to control the endosulfan toxicity in the environment.

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ENDOSULFAN CONTAMINATION IN SOIL: SOURCES, IMPACT AND BIOREMEDIATION

Somenath Das - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Anand Kumar Chaudhari - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study
, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Ajay Kumar - 2Agriculture Research Organizations (ARO), Volcani Center, Israel
Vipin Kumar Singh - 1Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Indiscriminate application of insecticide endosulfan in the agricultural field has polluted the soil, air, and water posing a severe challenging threat to the natural ecosystem. Once introduced into the natural environment they are transformed into different forms depending on the prevailing environmental conditions and microbial community involved. The endosulfan sulfate produced by microbiological activity is considered as one of the stable form responsible for food chain contamination. The endosulfan has a hazardous impact on human and other organisms including fishes, beneficial insects and soil microorganisms due to its persistent, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, and genotoxic nature. Their presence in food products beyond the prescribed safety limits has emerged as a challenging issue to human health. The effective detection of endosulfan content using high throughput instrument is very much important for the management of contaminated sites. The presence of endosulfan in groundwater resulting from the surface runoff near the abandoned production site and huge illegal agricultural application in several parts of the world even after the ban indicates the need of strict regulations in the present scenario. Currently, numerous physical and chemical methods have been proposed to eliminate the risk of endosulfan contamination but due to their limitations such as high input of energy, application of toxic chemicals and generation of secondary products of noxious nature has limited the application. On the other hand, biological methods relying on native microorganism being eco-friendly, cost-effective and free from generation of secondary sludge are much preferred. Since the biological processes are largely governed by an environmental factor, optimization of important parameters and selection of suitable microorganism displaying tolerance to a wide range of endosulfan concentration is inevitable. Further, the identification of genes directly involved in degradation and their transfer into suitable microbe may be considered as an effective strategy to control the endosulfan toxicity in the environment.

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