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Journal of Dairy Science

Alon, T. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; Department of Animal Science, the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Rosov, A. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel. 
Lifshitz, L. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Dvir, H. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Gootwine, E. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Moallem, U. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.

Pregnancy toxemia is the most frequent metabolic disorder of ewes in late pregnancy. Although propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GLY) are common glucogenic supplements for treating pregnancy toxemia in ewes, the relative benefit of these 2 supplements is not entirely clear. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the changes during 24 h in key blood metabolites and insulin in response to PG or GLY drenching in prolific ewes. To this end, 36 multiparous late-pregnant Afec-Assaf ewes (~132.4 d pregnant) bearing 2 to 4 fetuses, divided into 2 blocks (18 ewes in each block), with a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of 0.5 to 1.6 mmol/L were included. Ewes were divided into 3 groups (12 ewes each; 6 ewes in each experimental day), according to their BHB levels, expected litter size, body weight, and body condition score, and were drenched with the following: (1) control group (CTL), 55 mL of water; (2) PG, 106 mL of PG (100% PG, 448 calories); or (3) GLY, 108 mL of Koforin 80 (80% GL; 448 calories). Blood samples were taken before drenching and every hour after drenching for 24 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, BHB, nonesterified fatty acids, lactate, glycerol, and insulin were determined. Because there were no effects of treatments after 12 h in the first block, the data were analyzed for 12 h after drenching rather than 24 h. The plasma glucose concentration during the first 5 h after drenching was the highest in the GLY, BHB concentration was the lowest in the PG, and the nonesterified fatty acid levels were lower in the PG compared with the CTL ewes during the first 5 h after drenching. However, glucose concentration was higher in the PG ewes at 9, 11, and 12 h after drenching than in CTL or GLY ewes. The mean lactate concentration in plasma for 12 h was 2.5- and 1.9-fold higher in the PG compared with the CTL and GLY ewes, respectively, and except at 11 h after drenching, it was significantly higher at each time point. The insulin concentration was higher in the GLY than in both other groups at 2 to 5 h after drenching. These results suggest that during the first few hours after drenching the effect of PG was more effective in reducing the BHB concentration, whereas the GLY effect was more effective in enhancing glucose concentration. The increased concentration in lactate following PG treatment suggests that the PG contribution to gluconeogenesis is mediated through its metabolism to lactate. In contrast, the lack of an effect on lactate, and the faster increase in blood glucose in response to GLY suggest that GLY has a more advanced entry point to gluconeogenesis, which influences the immediate response in enhancing the glucose blood concentration.

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The distinctive short-term response of late-pregnant prolific ewes to propylene glycol or glycerol drenching
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Alon, T. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel; Department of Animal Science, the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Rosov, A. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel. 
Lifshitz, L. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Dvir, H. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Gootwine, E. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
 
Moallem, U. - Department of Ruminant Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.

The distinctive short-term response of late-pregnant prolific ewes to propylene glycol or glycerol drenching

Pregnancy toxemia is the most frequent metabolic disorder of ewes in late pregnancy. Although propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GLY) are common glucogenic supplements for treating pregnancy toxemia in ewes, the relative benefit of these 2 supplements is not entirely clear. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the changes during 24 h in key blood metabolites and insulin in response to PG or GLY drenching in prolific ewes. To this end, 36 multiparous late-pregnant Afec-Assaf ewes (~132.4 d pregnant) bearing 2 to 4 fetuses, divided into 2 blocks (18 ewes in each block), with a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of 0.5 to 1.6 mmol/L were included. Ewes were divided into 3 groups (12 ewes each; 6 ewes in each experimental day), according to their BHB levels, expected litter size, body weight, and body condition score, and were drenched with the following: (1) control group (CTL), 55 mL of water; (2) PG, 106 mL of PG (100% PG, 448 calories); or (3) GLY, 108 mL of Koforin 80 (80% GL; 448 calories). Blood samples were taken before drenching and every hour after drenching for 24 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, BHB, nonesterified fatty acids, lactate, glycerol, and insulin were determined. Because there were no effects of treatments after 12 h in the first block, the data were analyzed for 12 h after drenching rather than 24 h. The plasma glucose concentration during the first 5 h after drenching was the highest in the GLY, BHB concentration was the lowest in the PG, and the nonesterified fatty acid levels were lower in the PG compared with the CTL ewes during the first 5 h after drenching. However, glucose concentration was higher in the PG ewes at 9, 11, and 12 h after drenching than in CTL or GLY ewes. The mean lactate concentration in plasma for 12 h was 2.5- and 1.9-fold higher in the PG compared with the CTL and GLY ewes, respectively, and except at 11 h after drenching, it was significantly higher at each time point. The insulin concentration was higher in the GLY than in both other groups at 2 to 5 h after drenching. These results suggest that during the first few hours after drenching the effect of PG was more effective in reducing the BHB concentration, whereas the GLY effect was more effective in enhancing glucose concentration. The increased concentration in lactate following PG treatment suggests that the PG contribution to gluconeogenesis is mediated through its metabolism to lactate. In contrast, the lack of an effect on lactate, and the faster increase in blood glucose in response to GLY suggest that GLY has a more advanced entry point to gluconeogenesis, which influences the immediate response in enhancing the glucose blood concentration.

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