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Danielle Duanis-Assaf  - Department of Food Science, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel..

Doron Steinberg - Biofilm Research Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel. 
Moshe Shemesh - Department of Food Science, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive probiotic bacterium that successfully colonises plant roots due to its ability to utilise various sugars. The vast probiotic potential of B. subtilis has been recently demonstrated in numerous host organisms under different environmental conditions. We examined the probiotic potential of B. subtilis against the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, which is involved in various oral disorders due to its robust biofilm-forming capability. B. subtilis cells attenuated biofilm formation by S. mutans during their dual growth in the presence of sugar alcohols. Transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolism of sugar alcohols by B. subtilis were highly induced. Moreover, growth-curve analysis suggested that B. subtilis is more efficient at early utilising sugar alcohols than S. mutans, as supported by the bacterial metabolic activity rates. Similarly, a comparison of secondary metabolites of mono and mixed cultures of B. subtilis and S. mutans indicated that B. subtilis is more active metabolically in the dual culture. Finally, knock-out mutations of the genes encoding key enzymes in the central metabolic pathway significantly reduced B. subtilis' ability to mitigate biofilm formation by S. mutans. We conclude that effective metabolism of sugar alcohols by B. subtilis reinforces the probiotic potential of this bacterium against pathogenic species such as S. mutans.

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Efficiency of Bacillus subtilis metabolism of sugar alcohols governs its probiotic effect against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans

Danielle Duanis-Assaf  - Department of Food Science, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel..

Doron Steinberg - Biofilm Research Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel. 
Moshe Shemesh - Department of Food Science, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Efficiency of Bacillus subtilis metabolism of sugar alcohols governs its probiotic effect against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans

Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive probiotic bacterium that successfully colonises plant roots due to its ability to utilise various sugars. The vast probiotic potential of B. subtilis has been recently demonstrated in numerous host organisms under different environmental conditions. We examined the probiotic potential of B. subtilis against the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, which is involved in various oral disorders due to its robust biofilm-forming capability. B. subtilis cells attenuated biofilm formation by S. mutans during their dual growth in the presence of sugar alcohols. Transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolism of sugar alcohols by B. subtilis were highly induced. Moreover, growth-curve analysis suggested that B. subtilis is more efficient at early utilising sugar alcohols than S. mutans, as supported by the bacterial metabolic activity rates. Similarly, a comparison of secondary metabolites of mono and mixed cultures of B. subtilis and S. mutans indicated that B. subtilis is more active metabolically in the dual culture. Finally, knock-out mutations of the genes encoding key enzymes in the central metabolic pathway significantly reduced B. subtilis' ability to mitigate biofilm formation by S. mutans. We conclude that effective metabolism of sugar alcohols by B. subtilis reinforces the probiotic potential of this bacterium against pathogenic species such as S. mutans.

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