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Shobhika Parmar 
 Vijay K Sharma 
 Vir Singh 
 Ravindra N Kharwar 

The River Yamuna in Delhi region, the National Capital Territory (NCT) of India, carries potentially toxic metals such as Cr, Pb, Mn, Mg, Hg, Fe and Zn. These contaminants are discharged mainly from industrial wastes, agricultural and household activities and domestic sewage. A total of 12 stations (2.5 to 3.5 km apart from each other) were selected for the study, covering the upstream and downstream areas of river Yamuna in Delhi. The investigated sites were evaluated for significant difference between upstream and downstream locations of river Yamuna in three different time periods (June, October, February). Metal contamination were measured in water, sediments (2 μm) and nearby agriculture soil of the river Yamuna, and found with high metal loads as compared with the international standards, chiefly in the downstream sites as the river flows through the Delhi stretch. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed spatial and temporal variations in the metal concentrations which suggest seasonal variation and common point source of some metals while different sources of other metals. The contamination of the river water and adjoining agriculture soils points towards possible entry of these metals into the food chain. The study indicates that considering the current status of metal pollution, the surface water is not in good conditions for use as drinking purpose because of the high concentrations of few potentially toxic metals. Our study recommends regular monitoring of toxic metals in Yamuna river water and sediments, strict ban on the domestic, agriculture and industrial waste disposal for the restoration of the river to its natural state.

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Seasonal variation of potentially toxic metal contamination in Yamuna riverine ecosystem, Delhi, India

Shobhika Parmar 
 Vijay K Sharma 
 Vir Singh 
 Ravindra N Kharwar 

Seasonal variation of potentially toxic metal contamination in Yamuna riverine ecosystem, Delhi, India

The River Yamuna in Delhi region, the National Capital Territory (NCT) of India, carries potentially toxic metals such as Cr, Pb, Mn, Mg, Hg, Fe and Zn. These contaminants are discharged mainly from industrial wastes, agricultural and household activities and domestic sewage. A total of 12 stations (2.5 to 3.5 km apart from each other) were selected for the study, covering the upstream and downstream areas of river Yamuna in Delhi. The investigated sites were evaluated for significant difference between upstream and downstream locations of river Yamuna in three different time periods (June, October, February). Metal contamination were measured in water, sediments (2 μm) and nearby agriculture soil of the river Yamuna, and found with high metal loads as compared with the international standards, chiefly in the downstream sites as the river flows through the Delhi stretch. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed spatial and temporal variations in the metal concentrations which suggest seasonal variation and common point source of some metals while different sources of other metals. The contamination of the river water and adjoining agriculture soils points towards possible entry of these metals into the food chain. The study indicates that considering the current status of metal pollution, the surface water is not in good conditions for use as drinking purpose because of the high concentrations of few potentially toxic metals. Our study recommends regular monitoring of toxic metals in Yamuna river water and sediments, strict ban on the domestic, agriculture and industrial waste disposal for the restoration of the river to its natural state.

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