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Soil Salinity Type Effects on the Relationship between the Electrical Conductivity and Salt Content for 1:5 Soil-to-Water Extract
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2021
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Soil salinity severely affects soil ecosystem quality and crop production in semi-arid and arid regions. A vast quantity of data on soil salinity has been collected by research organizations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, formerly USSR) and many other countries over the last 70 years, but using them in the current international network (irrigation and reclamation strategy) is complicated. This is because in the CIS countries salinity was expressed by total soluble salts as a percentage on a dry-weight basis (total soluble salts, TSS, %) and eight salinity types (chemistry) determined by the ratios of the anions and cations (Cl, SO42−, HCO3, and Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) in diluted soil water extract (soil/water = 1:5) without assessing electrical conductivity (EC). Measuring the EC (1:5) is more convenient, yet EC is not only affected by the concentration but also characteristics of the ions and the salinity chemistry. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EC and TSS of soils in a diluted extract (1:5) for eight classic salinity types. We analyzed extracts (1:5) of 1100 samples of a clayey soil (0–20 cm) collected from cultivated semi-arid and arid regions for EC, TSS, soluble cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), and anions (HCO3, Cl, SO42−). Results revealed that (i) the variation in the proportional relationships (R2 ≥ 0.91–0.98) between EC (0.12–5.6 dS m−1) and TSS (0.05–2.5%) could be related to salinity type, and (ii) the proportionality coefficient of the relationships (2.2 2–3.16) decreased in the following order of salinity type: SO4 < Cl(SO4)–HCO3 < Cl(HCO3)–SO4 < SO4 (HCO3)–Cl < Cl. The findings suggest that once the salinity type of the soil is established, EC (1:5) values can be safely used for the evaluation of the soil salinity degree in the irrigated land in the context of sustainable soil and crop management.

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English
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54584
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
13/04/2021 19:30
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Scientific Publication
Soil Salinity Type Effects on the Relationship between the Electrical Conductivity and Salt Content for 1:5 Soil-to-Water Extract
Soil Salinity Type Effects on the Relationship between the Electrical Conductivity and Salt Content for 1:5 Soil-to-Water Extract

Soil salinity severely affects soil ecosystem quality and crop production in semi-arid and arid regions. A vast quantity of data on soil salinity has been collected by research organizations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, formerly USSR) and many other countries over the last 70 years, but using them in the current international network (irrigation and reclamation strategy) is complicated. This is because in the CIS countries salinity was expressed by total soluble salts as a percentage on a dry-weight basis (total soluble salts, TSS, %) and eight salinity types (chemistry) determined by the ratios of the anions and cations (Cl, SO42−, HCO3, and Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) in diluted soil water extract (soil/water = 1:5) without assessing electrical conductivity (EC). Measuring the EC (1:5) is more convenient, yet EC is not only affected by the concentration but also characteristics of the ions and the salinity chemistry. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EC and TSS of soils in a diluted extract (1:5) for eight classic salinity types. We analyzed extracts (1:5) of 1100 samples of a clayey soil (0–20 cm) collected from cultivated semi-arid and arid regions for EC, TSS, soluble cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), and anions (HCO3, Cl, SO42−). Results revealed that (i) the variation in the proportional relationships (R2 ≥ 0.91–0.98) between EC (0.12–5.6 dS m−1) and TSS (0.05–2.5%) could be related to salinity type, and (ii) the proportionality coefficient of the relationships (2.2 2–3.16) decreased in the following order of salinity type: SO4 < Cl(SO4)–HCO3 < Cl(HCO3)–SO4 < SO4 (HCO3)–Cl < Cl. The findings suggest that once the salinity type of the soil is established, EC (1:5) values can be safely used for the evaluation of the soil salinity degree in the irrigated land in the context of sustainable soil and crop management.

Scientific Publication
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