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The morphogenetic potential of citrus tissue in vitro has been realized to full extent in explants from the somatic cells of the nucellus. the role of apomixis and polyembryony in citrus evolution, propagation and breeding has been evaluated. while nucellar tissue has given rise to embryos in vitro in polyembryonic, and in rare cases, monoembryonic cultivars, it also produces an embryogenic callus in many citrus species and cultivars. conditions and factors for realizing its embryogenetic potential have been described. lowering the auxin status, anti-auxins, irradiation and the use of galac-tose-yielding sugars have enhanced embryogenesis. protoplast cultures have been established from the nucellar callus, also giving rise to plants via newly formed callus. callus has maintained stability under prolonged subculture and remained diploid. selection of callus lines tolerant to diverse stresses (salinity, 2,4-d) has been initiated and stress-tolerant, embryogenic callus lines have been established. the significance of these culture methods for mutation breeding is discussed.

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering book series (ABE, volume 16)

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Embryogenesis in Citrus tissue cultures
16
Embryogenesis in Citrus tissue cultures

The morphogenetic potential of citrus tissue in vitro has been realized to full extent in explants from the somatic cells of the nucellus. the role of apomixis and polyembryony in citrus evolution, propagation and breeding has been evaluated. while nucellar tissue has given rise to embryos in vitro in polyembryonic, and in rare cases, monoembryonic cultivars, it also produces an embryogenic callus in many citrus species and cultivars. conditions and factors for realizing its embryogenetic potential have been described. lowering the auxin status, anti-auxins, irradiation and the use of galac-tose-yielding sugars have enhanced embryogenesis. protoplast cultures have been established from the nucellar callus, also giving rise to plants via newly formed callus. callus has maintained stability under prolonged subculture and remained diploid. selection of callus lines tolerant to diverse stresses (salinity, 2,4-d) has been initiated and stress-tolerant, embryogenic callus lines have been established. the significance of these culture methods for mutation breeding is discussed.

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering book series (ABE, volume 16)

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