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Symposium review: Mechanistic insights into adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows
Year:
2022
Source of publication :
Journal of Dairy Science
Authors :
Zachut, Maya
;
.
Volume :
105
Co-Authors:

Maya Zachut
G. Andres Contreras

Facilitators :
From page:
3670
To page:
3686
(
Total pages:
17
)
Abstract:

During the periparturient period, lipolysis in adipose tissue (AT) mobilizes fatty acid reserves to meet high energy needs of dairy cows. This physiological response is accompanied by the synthesis and secretion of a plethora of proteins (adipokines) and lipid products that modulate metabolic functions. In the AT, lipolysis generates free radicals (FR), including reactive oxygen species, and leads to a remodeling process characterized by an inflammatory response. In the AT of healthy cows with adequate lipolytic responses, antioxidant defenses neutralize FR, and the inflammation associated with remodeling is rapidly resolved. The control of these processes is orchestrated by numerous inflammatory and oxidative stress (OS)-related pathways identified by recent transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. For example, parturition and the onset of lactation enhance the transcription and translation of complement and acute-phase proteins and, at the same time, enrich antioxidant defenses that neutralize FR, including Nrf2. However, in cows with exacerbated and protracted lipolysis, the production of FR rapidly depletes antioxidant systems, and OS develops. The harmful effects of OS in AT include activating inflammatory responses and inhibiting insulin signaling within AT. By intensifying AT inflammation, OS impairs adipocyte response to insulin. This leads to a vicious circle where OS exacerbates AT lipolysis and inflammation, which further promotes OS. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that modulate AT inflammatory responses and OS during the periparturient period of dairy cows.

Note:
Related Files :
adipose tissue inflammation
free fatty acids
lipolysis
oxidative stress
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.3168/jds.2021-21225
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
PubMed
Publication Type:
Review
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
58406
Last updated date:
05/04/2022 10:03
Creation date:
04/04/2022 16:00
You may also be interested in
Scientific Publication
Symposium review: Mechanistic insights into adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows
105

Maya Zachut
G. Andres Contreras

Symposium review: Mechanistic insights into adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows

During the periparturient period, lipolysis in adipose tissue (AT) mobilizes fatty acid reserves to meet high energy needs of dairy cows. This physiological response is accompanied by the synthesis and secretion of a plethora of proteins (adipokines) and lipid products that modulate metabolic functions. In the AT, lipolysis generates free radicals (FR), including reactive oxygen species, and leads to a remodeling process characterized by an inflammatory response. In the AT of healthy cows with adequate lipolytic responses, antioxidant defenses neutralize FR, and the inflammation associated with remodeling is rapidly resolved. The control of these processes is orchestrated by numerous inflammatory and oxidative stress (OS)-related pathways identified by recent transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. For example, parturition and the onset of lactation enhance the transcription and translation of complement and acute-phase proteins and, at the same time, enrich antioxidant defenses that neutralize FR, including Nrf2. However, in cows with exacerbated and protracted lipolysis, the production of FR rapidly depletes antioxidant systems, and OS develops. The harmful effects of OS in AT include activating inflammatory responses and inhibiting insulin signaling within AT. By intensifying AT inflammation, OS impairs adipocyte response to insulin. This leads to a vicious circle where OS exacerbates AT lipolysis and inflammation, which further promotes OS. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that modulate AT inflammatory responses and OS during the periparturient period of dairy cows.

Scientific Publication
You may also be interested in