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Merentoshi Mollier 
Rajib Roychowdhury
Lanunola Tzudir 
Radheshyam Sharma
Ujjal Barua
Naseema Rahman
Sikandar Pal
Bhabesh Gogoi 
Prakash Kalita
Devendra Jain
Ranjan Das 

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereal crop worldwide due to its long domestication history. North-Eastern India (NEI) is one of the origins of indica rice and contains various native landraces that can withstand climatic changes. The present study compared NEI rice landraces to a check variety for phenological, morpho-physiological, and yield-associated traits under high temperatures (HTs) and elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels using molecular markers. The first experiment tested 75 rice landraces for HT tolerance. Seven better-performing landraces and the check variety (N22) were evaluated for the above traits in bioreactors for two years (2019 and 2020) under control (T1) and two stress treatments [mild stress or T2 (eCO2 550 ppm + 4 °C more than ambient temperature) and severe stress or T3 (eCO2 750 ppm + 6 °C more than ambient temperature)]. The findings showed that moderate stress (T2) improved plant height (PH), leaf number (LN), leaf area (LA), spikelets panicle-1 (S/P), thousand-grain weight (TGW), harvest index (HI), and grain production. HT and eCO2 in T3 significantly decreased all genotypes' metrics, including grain yield (GY). Pollen traits are strongly and positively associated with spikelet fertility at maturity and GY under stress conditions. Shoot biomass positively affected yield-associated traits including S/P, TGW, HI, and GY. This study recorded an average reduction of 8.09% GY across two seasons in response to the conditions simulated in T3. Overall, two landraces-Kohima special and Lisem-were found to be more responsive compared to other the landraces as well as N22 under stress conditions, with a higher yield and biomass increment. SCoT-marker-assisted genotyping amplified 77 alleles, 55 of which were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values from 0.22 to 0.67. The study reveals genetic variation among the rice lines and supports Kohima Special and Lisem's close relationship. These two better-performing rice landraces are useful pre-breeding resources for future rice-breeding programs to increase stress tolerance, especially to HT and high eCO2 levels under changing climatic situations.

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Evaluation of Morpho-Physiological and Yield-Associated Traits of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Landraces Combined with Marker-Assisted Selection under High-Temperature Stress and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Levels

Merentoshi Mollier 
Rajib Roychowdhury
Lanunola Tzudir 
Radheshyam Sharma
Ujjal Barua
Naseema Rahman
Sikandar Pal
Bhabesh Gogoi 
Prakash Kalita
Devendra Jain
Ranjan Das 

Evaluation of Morpho-Physiological and Yield-Associated Traits of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Landraces Combined with Marker-Assisted Selection under High-Temperature Stress and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Levels

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereal crop worldwide due to its long domestication history. North-Eastern India (NEI) is one of the origins of indica rice and contains various native landraces that can withstand climatic changes. The present study compared NEI rice landraces to a check variety for phenological, morpho-physiological, and yield-associated traits under high temperatures (HTs) and elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels using molecular markers. The first experiment tested 75 rice landraces for HT tolerance. Seven better-performing landraces and the check variety (N22) were evaluated for the above traits in bioreactors for two years (2019 and 2020) under control (T1) and two stress treatments [mild stress or T2 (eCO2 550 ppm + 4 °C more than ambient temperature) and severe stress or T3 (eCO2 750 ppm + 6 °C more than ambient temperature)]. The findings showed that moderate stress (T2) improved plant height (PH), leaf number (LN), leaf area (LA), spikelets panicle-1 (S/P), thousand-grain weight (TGW), harvest index (HI), and grain production. HT and eCO2 in T3 significantly decreased all genotypes' metrics, including grain yield (GY). Pollen traits are strongly and positively associated with spikelet fertility at maturity and GY under stress conditions. Shoot biomass positively affected yield-associated traits including S/P, TGW, HI, and GY. This study recorded an average reduction of 8.09% GY across two seasons in response to the conditions simulated in T3. Overall, two landraces-Kohima special and Lisem-were found to be more responsive compared to other the landraces as well as N22 under stress conditions, with a higher yield and biomass increment. SCoT-marker-assisted genotyping amplified 77 alleles, 55 of which were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values from 0.22 to 0.67. The study reveals genetic variation among the rice lines and supports Kohima Special and Lisem's close relationship. These two better-performing rice landraces are useful pre-breeding resources for future rice-breeding programs to increase stress tolerance, especially to HT and high eCO2 levels under changing climatic situations.

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