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Meirav Leibman-Markus 
Anat Schneider 
Rupali Gupta
Iftah Marash 
Dalia Rav-David 
Mira Carmeli-Weissberg 
Yigal Elad
Maya Bar 

Plants have developed an array of mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogen invasion. The deployment of defense mechanisms is imperative for plant survival, but can come at the expense of plant growth, leading to the 'growth-defense trade-off' phenomenon. Following pathogen exposure, plants can develop resistance to further attack. This is known as induced resistance, or priming. Here, we investigated the growth-defense trade-off, examining how defense priming via systemic acquired resistance (SAR), or induced systemic resistance (ISR), affects tomato development and growth. We found that defense priming can promote, rather than inhibit, plant development, and that defense priming and growth trade-offs can be uncoupled. Cytokinin response was activated during induced resistance, and found to be required for the observed growth and disease resistance resulting from ISR activation. ISR was found to have a stronger effect than SAR on plant development. Our results suggest that growth promotion and induced resistance can be co-dependent, and that, in certain cases, defense priming can drive developmental processes and promote plant yield.

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Immunity priming uncouples the growth-defense trade-off in tomato

Meirav Leibman-Markus 
Anat Schneider 
Rupali Gupta
Iftah Marash 
Dalia Rav-David 
Mira Carmeli-Weissberg 
Yigal Elad
Maya Bar 

Immunity priming uncouples the growth-defense trade-off in tomato

Plants have developed an array of mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogen invasion. The deployment of defense mechanisms is imperative for plant survival, but can come at the expense of plant growth, leading to the 'growth-defense trade-off' phenomenon. Following pathogen exposure, plants can develop resistance to further attack. This is known as induced resistance, or priming. Here, we investigated the growth-defense trade-off, examining how defense priming via systemic acquired resistance (SAR), or induced systemic resistance (ISR), affects tomato development and growth. We found that defense priming can promote, rather than inhibit, plant development, and that defense priming and growth trade-offs can be uncoupled. Cytokinin response was activated during induced resistance, and found to be required for the observed growth and disease resistance resulting from ISR activation. ISR was found to have a stronger effect than SAR on plant development. Our results suggest that growth promotion and induced resistance can be co-dependent, and that, in certain cases, defense priming can drive developmental processes and promote plant yield.

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