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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Jayashree Ramakrishnan
Liora Salame
Karthik Ananth Mani
Reut Feldbaum
Eldad Karavani
Guy Mechrez
Itamar Glazer
Dana Ment 

Formulation technology has been the primordial focus to improve the low viability and erratic infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) for foliar application. Adaptability to the fluctuating environment is a key trait in ensuring the survival and efficacy of EPNs. Hence, tailoring formulations towards EPNs foliar applications would effectively deliver consistent and reliable results for above-ground applications. EPNs survival and activity were characterized in novel Pickering emulsion post-application in planta cotton foliage. Two different types of novel formulations, Titanium Pickering emulsion (TPE) and Silica Pickering emulsion Gel (SPEG), were tailored for EPNs foliar applications. We report an extension of survival and infectivity to 96 hrs under controlled conditions by SPEG formulations for survival of IJ's on cotton foliage. In addition, survival of IJs (LT50) was extended from 14hrs in water to > 80 hrs and > 40 hrs by SPEG and TPE respectively. SPEG accounted for the slowest decrease of live IJs per surface area in comparison to TPE and control samples over time, exhibiting a 6-fold increase at 48 hrs. Under extreme conditions, survival and efficacy were extended for 8hrs in SPEG compared to merely 2hrs in control. Potential implications and possible mechanisms of protection are discussed.

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Increasing the survival and efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes on exposed surfaces by Pickering emulsion formulations offers new venue for foliar pest management
199

Jayashree Ramakrishnan
Liora Salame
Karthik Ananth Mani
Reut Feldbaum
Eldad Karavani
Guy Mechrez
Itamar Glazer
Dana Ment 

Increasing the survival and efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes on exposed surfaces by Pickering emulsion formulations offers new venue for foliar pest management

Formulation technology has been the primordial focus to improve the low viability and erratic infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) for foliar application. Adaptability to the fluctuating environment is a key trait in ensuring the survival and efficacy of EPNs. Hence, tailoring formulations towards EPNs foliar applications would effectively deliver consistent and reliable results for above-ground applications. EPNs survival and activity were characterized in novel Pickering emulsion post-application in planta cotton foliage. Two different types of novel formulations, Titanium Pickering emulsion (TPE) and Silica Pickering emulsion Gel (SPEG), were tailored for EPNs foliar applications. We report an extension of survival and infectivity to 96 hrs under controlled conditions by SPEG formulations for survival of IJ's on cotton foliage. In addition, survival of IJs (LT50) was extended from 14hrs in water to > 80 hrs and > 40 hrs by SPEG and TPE respectively. SPEG accounted for the slowest decrease of live IJs per surface area in comparison to TPE and control samples over time, exhibiting a 6-fold increase at 48 hrs. Under extreme conditions, survival and efficacy were extended for 8hrs in SPEG compared to merely 2hrs in control. Potential implications and possible mechanisms of protection are discussed.

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